Clinical characteristics of 3,062 COVID‐19 patients: a meta‐analysis
Zhu, Jieyun, et al.
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Objective: We aim to systematically review the clinical characteristics of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19). Methods: Seven datebases were searched to collect studies about the clinical characteristics of COVID‐19 from 1 January 2020 to 28 February 2020. Then, meta‐analysis was performed by using Stata12.0 software. Results: A total of 38 studies involving 3 062 COVID‐19 patients were included. Meta‐analysis showed that a higher proportion of infected patients were male (56.9%). The incidence rate of respiratory failure or ARDS was 19.5% and the fatality rate was 5.5%. Fever (80.4%), fatigue (46%), cough (63.1%) and expectoration (41.8%) were the most common clinical manifestations. Other common symptoms included muscle soreness (33%), anorexia (38.8%), chest tightness (35.7%), shortness of breath (35%), dyspnea (33.9%). Minor symptoms included nausea and vomiting (10.2%), diarrhea (12.9%), headache (15.4%), pharyngalgia(13.1%), shivering (10.9%) and abdominal pain (4.4%). Patients with asymptomatic was 11.9%. Normal leukocytes counts (69.7%), lymphopenia (56.5%), elevated C‐reactive protein levels (73.6%), elevated ESR (65.6%) and oxygenation index decreased (63.6%) were observed in most patients. About 37.2% of patients with elevated D‐dimer, 25.9% of patients with leukopenia, along with abnormal levels of liver function (29%) and renal function (25.5%). Other findings included leukocytosis (12.6%) and elevated procalcitonin (17.5%). Only 25.8% of patients had lesions involving single lung and 75.7% of patients had lesions involving bilateral lungs. Conclusions: The most commonly experienced symptoms of COVID‐19 patients were fever, fatigue, cough and expectoration. A relatively small percentage of patients were asymptomatic. Most patients showed normal leucocytes counts, lymphopenia, elevated levels of C‐reactive protein and ESR. Bilateral lungs involvement was common.