Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) markedly increased mortality in patients with hip fracture – A systematic review and meta-analysis
Lim, Michael Anthonius
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Introduction: This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the prevalence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and its impact on mortality in patients with hip fracture. Methods: We performed a systematic literature search in PubMed, Cochrane Central Database, and medRvix from inception up to July 13, 2020 on research articles that enrolled hip fracture patients who had information on COVID-19 and clinically validated definition of death. Results: A total of 984 participants from 6 studies were included in our study. The pooled prevalence of COVID-19 was 9% [95% CI: 7–11%]. The mortality rate in patients with concomitant hip fracture and COVID-19 was found to be 36% (95% CI: 26–47%), whereas the mortality rate in hip fracture without COVID-19 is 2% (95% CI: 1–3%). Meta-analysis showed that COVID-19 was associated with a seven-fold increase in risk (RR 7.45 [95% CI: 2.72, 20.43], p < 0.001; I2: 68.6%) of mortality in patients with hip fracture. Regression-based Harbord’s test showed no indication of small-study effects (p = 0.06). Conclusion: The present meta-analysis showed that COVID-19 increased the risk of mortality in patients with hip fracture.