COVID-19 diagnosis and study of serum SARS-CoV-2 specific IgA, IgM and IgG by chemiluminescence immunoanalysis
Ma, Huan et al.
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Background. The pandemic of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is causing great loss. Detecting viral RNAs is standard approach for SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis with variable success. Currently, studies describing the serological diagnostic methods are emerging, while most of them just involve the detection of SARS-CoV-2-specific IgM and IgG by ELISA or flow immunoassay with limited accuracy. Methods. Diagnostic approach depends on chemiluminescence immunoanalysis (CLIA) for detecting IgA, IgM and IgG specific to SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein (NP) and receptor-binding domain (RBD) was developed. The approach was tested with 216 sera from 87 COVID-19 patients and 483 sera from SARS-CoV-2 negative individuals. The diagnostic accuracy was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Concentration kinetics of RBD-specific serum antibodies were characterized. The relationship of serum RBD-specific antibodies and disease severity was analyzed. Results. The diagnostic accuracy based on RBD outperformed those based on NP. Adding IgA to a conventional serological test containing IgM and IgG improves sensitivity of SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis at early stage. CLIA for detecting RBD-specific IgA, IgM and IgG showed diagnostic sensitivities of 98.6%, 96.8% and 96.8%, and specificities of 98.1%, 92.3% and 99.8%, respectively. Median concentration of IgA and IgM peaked during 16-20 days after illness onset at 8.84 μg/mL and 7.25 μg/mL, respectively, while IgG peaked during 21-25 days after illness onset at 16.47 μg/mL. Furthermore, the serum IgA level positively correlates with COVID-19 severity. Conclusion. CLIA for detecting SARS-CoV-2 RBD-specific IgA, IgM and IgG in blood provides additional values for diagnosing and monitoring of COVID-19.