Immune-epidemiological parameters of the novel coronavirus – a perspective
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Introduction: At the end of 2019, Wuhan, a city in China with a population of about 11 million, witnessed the outbreak of unusual pneumonia. As of 29 March 2020, the disease has spread to more 199 countries and territories worldwide. The 2019 novel coronavirus, 2019-nCoV, is known as the probable causative agent of the illness. Areas covered: Here, the epidemiological dynamics of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) that stand in close relation to distinct immunogenetic characters of the pathogen are discussed, to understand the ability and inability of the immune system in combatting COVID-19. Expert opinion: The elderly population is at increased risk of developing and dying from COVID-19. Comorbidity is present in more than 30% of cases with COVID-19. Except for less than 1% of the total, a chronic condition has been found in all cases that died from COVID-19. Men are more than 1.5 times more likely to die from COVID-19. Evidence links aging to cytokine dysregulation and T-cell repertoire reduction, male population to relatively reduced anti-viral immunity, and COVID-19-related comorbidities to hyper inflammation. The transmission of COVID-19 is influenced by the host-related factors that are known to be associated with immune dysregulation.