|dc.description.abstract||Background Zika virus is an arthropod-borne virus that is a member of the family Flaviviridae transmitted mainly by
mosquitoes of the genus Aedes. Although usually asymptomatic, infection can result in a mild and self-limiting illness
characterised by fever, rash, arthralgia, and conjunctivitis. An increase in the number of children born with
microcephaly was noted in 2015 in regions of Brazil with high transmission of Zika virus. More recently, evidence has
been accumulating supporting a link between Zika virus and microcephaly. Here, we describe fi ndings from three
fatal cases and two spontaneous abortions associated with Zika virus infection.
Methods In this case series, formalin-fi xed paraffi n-embedded tissue samples from fi ve cases, including two newborn
babies with microcephaly and severe arthrogryposis who died shortly after birth, one 2-month-old baby, and two
placentas from spontaneous abortions, from Brazil were submitted to the Infectious Diseases Pathology Branch at
the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (Atlanta, GA, USA) between December, 2015, and March, 2016.
Specimens were assessed by histopathological examination, immunohistochemical assays using a mouse anti-Zika
virus antibody, and RT-PCR assays targeting the NS5 and envelope genes. Amplicons of RT-PCR positive cases were
sequenced for characterisation of strains.||en_US