Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Efficacy of Nanoscale Materials Against Coronaviruses—Possible Potential Antiviral Agents for SARS-CoV-2
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The available antiviral agents and their potential for the management of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak are important interventions. A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to summarize the available evidence on the efficacy of nanoscale materials against coronaviruses in vitro and in animal models. PubMed, Scopus and Wiley Online Library databases were searched up to 4 March 2020. Studies that developed the efficacy of nanoscale materials against coronaviruses were included. Two reviewers independently extracted study characteristics and assessed risk of bias and applicability in the included studies. Meta-analyses were conducted to determine the overall inhibition efficacy of nanoscale materials against coronaviruses. A total of 21 studies were identified. Positive association was found between efficacy of nanoscale materials and coronaviruses in vitro and in animal models. The inhibition efficacy of nanoscale materials against coronavirus in vitro and in animal models were 1.84 (95% CI: 1.57, 2.15) and 1.66 (95% CI: 1.36, 2.02), respectively. Results of subgroup analysis of selected studies revealed that the nanoscale materials with spherical morphology were found to be more antiviral activity than the other morphologies against Middle East respiratory syndrome-coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV). Using systematic review and meta-analysis, our results indicate that nanoscale materials are positive affect against coronaviruses. We might clarify the possible potential for the use of nanoscale materials for SARS-CoV-2.