Prevalence and Impact of Myocardial Injury in Patients Hospitalized with COVID-19 Infection
Lala, Anuradha et al.
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Background: The degree of myocardial injury, as reflected by troponin elevation, and associated outcomes among US hospitalized patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) are unknown. Objectives: To describe the degree of myocardial injury and associated outcomes in a large hospitalized cohort with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19. Methods: Patients with COVID-19 admitted to one of five Mount Sinai Health System hospitals in New York City between February 27th and April 12th, 2020 with troponin-I (normal value <0.03ng/mL) measured within 24 hours of admission were included (n=2,736). Demographics, medical history, admission labs, and outcomes were captured from the hospitals’ EHR. Results: The median age was 66.4 years, with 59.6% men. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) including coronary artery disease, atrial fibrillation, and heart failure, was more prevalent in patients with higher troponin concentrations, as were hypertension and diabetes. A total of 506 (18.5%) patients died during hospitalization. In all, 985 (36%) patients had elevated troponin concentrations. After adjusting for disease severity and relevant clinical factors, even small amounts of myocardial injury (e.g. troponin I 0.03-0.09ng/mL, n=455, 16.6%) were significantly associated with death (adjusted HR: 1.75, 95% CI 1.37-2.24; P<0.001) while greater amounts (e.g. troponin I>0.09 ng/dL, n=530, 19.4%) were significantly associated with higher risk (adjusted HR 3.03, 95% CI 2.42-3.80; P<0.001). Conclusions: Myocardial injury is prevalent among patients hospitalized with COVID-19 however troponin concentrations were generally present at low levels. Patients with CVD are more likely to have myocardial injury than patients without CVD. Troponin elevation among patients hospitalized with COVID-19 is associated with higher risk of mortality.