Epidemiology, clinical course, and outcomes of critically ill adults with COVID-19 in New York City: a prospective cohort study
Cummings, Matthew J et al.
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Background: Nearly 30,000 patients with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) have been hospitalized in New York City as of April 14th, 2020. Data on the epidemiology, clinical course, and outcomes of critically ill patients with COVID-19 in this setting are needed. Methods: We prospectively collected clinical, biomarker, and treatment data on critically ill adults with laboratory-confirmed-COVID-19 admitted to two hospitals in northern Manhattan between March 2nd and April 1st, 2020. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes included frequency and duration of invasive mechanical ventilation, frequency of vasopressor use and renal-replacement-therapy, and time to clinical deterioration following hospital admission. The relationship between clinical risk factors, biomarkers, and in-hospital mortality was modeled using Cox-proportional-hazards regression. Each patient had at least 14 days of observation. Results: Of 1,150 adults hospitalized with COVID-19 during the study period, 257 (22%) were critically ill. The median age was 62 years (interquartile range [IQR] 51-72); 170 (66%) were male. Two-hundred twelve (82%) had at least one chronic illness, the most common of which were hypertension (63%; 162/257) and diabetes mellitus (36%; 92/257). One-hundred-thirty-eight patients (54%) were obese, and 13 (5%) were healthcare workers. As of April 14th, 2020, in-hospital mortality was 33% (86/257); 47% (122/257) of patients remained hospitalized. Two-hundred-one (79%) patients received invasive mechanical ventilation (median 13 days [IQR 9-17]), and 54% (138/257) and 29% (75/257) required vasopressors and renal-replacement-therapy, respectively. The median time to clinical deterioration following hospital admission was 3 days (IQR 1-6). Older age, hypertension, chronic lung disease, and higher concentrations of interleukin-6 and d-dimer at admission were independently associated with in-hospital mortality. Conclusions: Critical illness among patients hospitalized with COVID-19 in New York City is common and associated with a high frequency of invasive mechanical ventilation, extra-pulmonary organ dysfunction, and substantial in-hospital mortality.