The Dynamic Changes of Antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 during the Infection and Recovery of COVID-19
Li, Kening et al.
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Deciphering the dynamic changes of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 is essential for understanding the immune response in COVID-19 patients. By comprehensively analyzing the laboratory findings of 1,850 patients, we describe the dynamic changes of the total antibody, spike protein (S)-, receptor-binding domain (RBD)-, and nucleoprotein (N)- specific IgM and IgG levels during SARS-CoV-2 infection and recovery. Our results indicate that the S-, RBD-, and N- specific IgG generation of severe/critical COVID-19 patients is one week later than mild/moderate cases, while the levels of these antibodies are 1.5-fold higher in severe/critical patients during hospitalization (P<0.01). The decrease of these IgG levels indicates the poor outcome of severe/critical patients. The RBD- and S-specific IgG levels are 2-fold higher in virus-free patients (P<0.05). Notably, we found that the patients who got re-infected had a low level of protective antibody on discharge. Therefore, our evidence proves that the dynamic changes of antibodies could provide an important reference for diagnosis, monitoring, and treatment, and shed new light on the precise management of COVID-19.