Mast cell stabilisers, leukotriene antagonists and antihistamines: A rapid review of effectiveness in COVID-19
Oliver, Van Hecke
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Mast cells are present in mucosal and connective tissues throughout the body. They participate in the innate and adaptive immune process and have an important role in inflammation and allergy. Mast cells located in the submucosa of the respiratory tract are known to be activated by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Once activated, degranulation occurs releasing histamine and proteases. Late mast-cell activation leads to the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1, IL-6 and TNF-α. Vitamin D is required to maintain the stability of mast cells, and Vitamin D deficiency results in mast cell activation.