Clinical characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in China: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Fu, Leiwen et al.
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Objective: To better inform efforts to treat and control the current outbreak with a comprehensive char- acterization of COVID-19. Methods: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and CNKI (Chinese Database) for studies pub- lished as of March 2, 2020, and we searched references of identified articles. Studies were reviewed for methodological quality. A random-effects model was used to pool results. Heterogeneity was assessed using I2. Publication bias was assessed using Egger’s test. Results: 43 studies involving 3600 patients were included. Among COVID-19 patients, fever (83.3% [95% CI 78.4–87.7]), cough (60.3% [54.2–66.3]), and fatigue (38.0% [29.8–46.5]) were the most common clinical symptoms. The most common laboratory abnormalities were elevated C-reactive protein (68.6% [58.2– 78.2]), decreased lymphocyte count (57.4% [44.8–69.5]) and increased lactate dehydrogenase (51.6% [31.4– 71.6]). Ground-glass opacities (80.0% [67.3–90.4]) and bilateral pneumonia (73.2% [63.4–82.1]) were the most frequently reported findings on computed tomography. The overall estimated proportion of severe cases and case-fatality rate (CFR) was 25.6% (17.4–34.9) and 3.6% (1.1–7.2), respectively. CFR and labora- tory abnormalities were higher in severe cases, patients from Wuhan, and older patients, but CFR did not differ by gender. Conclusions: The majority of COVID-19 cases are symptomatic with a moderate CFR. Patients living in Wuhan, older patients, and those with medical comorbidities tend to have more severe clinical symptoms and higher CFR.